Background Papers

Access to Clean Drinking Water

Global Access to Clean Drinking Water and Sanitation: U.S. and International Programs

Tiaji Salaam-Blyther, Specialist in Global Health | 2012

This report identifies some issues that donors and U.S. agencies face while carrying out global drinking water and sanitation projects.

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Flood resilience

Flood Resilience Report for Lake Champlain Basin and Upper Richelieu River

Stephanie S. Castle | 2013

Grand Isle, VT - The Lake Champlain Basin Program released a new report today, Flood Resilience in the Lake Champlain Basin and Upper Richelieu River. The report presents results of an LCBP flood conference held in 2012 at the request of Vermont Governor Shumlin and Quebec's (former) Premier Charest, following the spring 2011 flooding of Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River Valley. This new report provides a comprehensive review of the 2011 flooding impacts and includes specific recommendations to help inform flood resilience policies and management strategies to reduce the impact of major floods anticipated in the future.

In addition to hosting technical workshops in Quebec and New York, the LCBP hosted a two-day conference in Vermont in 2012 to help inform this report. The document includes a summary of both 2011 flood...

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Funding

A Framework for Financing Water Resources Management

OECD | 2012

A lack of finance for water resources management is a primary concern for most OECD countries. This is exacerbated in the current fiscal environment of tight budgets and strong fiscal consolidation, as public funding provides the lion?s share of financial resources for water management.

The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin, national, or transboundary levels. The report goes beyond the traditional focus on financing water supply and sanitation to examine the full range of water management tasks that governments have to fulfill; when appropriate, a distinction is made on distinctive water issues.

The report identifies four principles (Polluter Pays, Beneficiary Pays, Equity, Policy Coherence), which have to be combined. In...

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Water Financing and Governance

Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 2008

There is a very close link between the integrated approach, good water governance and financing but, to date, there has been little discussion about this relationship. This paper aims to bring together these different strands so that a more coordinated, coherent approach to water financing is adopted. It focuses on the need to fund the water resources functions that are essential for security and sustainability.

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Integrated Water Resources Management

Integrated water resources management in the Caribbean: The challenges facing Small Island Developing States

GWP | International | 2014

This Technical Focus Paper is the first in a series of papers to present a critical review of progress made in planning and then putting plans into practice. They synthesise the challenges, the successes, the setbacks, and the direction for further integration. They provide valuable insights from

which others can learn lessons and apply them to their particular and often unique circumstances.This paper deals with the 15 English-speaking Caribbean States, which comprise some of the most fragile economies in the region, and explains the special circumstances of Small Island Developing States as they adopt and adapt to a 'source to sea' approach as their integrating framework.

After 15 years' experience, the tangible results serve as a testament to the effectiveness and importance of taking an integrated approach. They...

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The Role of Decision Support Systems and Models in Integrated River Basin Management

Global Water Partnership | 2013

The world's water issues are increasing in number, coverage and intensity and leading to a lack of water security. The availability of water in acceptable quality and quantity for human needs and for natural systems is paramount for sustaining life. Availability is under a constantly increasing threat from demands created by, amongst other factors, increasing populations, economic sector activities and requirements for environmental sustainability. Allocation issues at local, national and transboundary levels will become more and more contentious and flood and drought risks will be exacerbated by climate change. The IWRM approach has been developed to meet such challenges and to resolve such issues. IWRM assumes a governance system that is based on policy and legislation, institutional roles and a set of management instruments. Model...

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Municipal Water Management

Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM): Toward Diversification and Sustainability

Global Water Partnership | 2013

This policy brief outlines how IUWM can provide a framework for planning, designing, and managing urban water systems. The brief also encourages policy makers to consider the water cycle as a whole when cities are being developed.

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National Policies

Ontario's Draft Great Lakes Strategy

The Government of Ontario | 2012

Ontario's vision is one healthy Great Lakes for a Stronger Ontario. Great Lakes that are drinkable, swimmable and fishable.

Ontario's Draft Great Lakes Strategy discusses the various ways the Province would take action to protect and restore the Great Lakes. It includes:

  • Information on environmental conditions
  • Actions taken in the past and present on Great Lakes
  • Six goals to establish priorities for future action:
  • Empowering communities
  • Protecting water
  • Improving wetlands, beaches and coastal areas
  • Protecting habitats and species
  • Enhancing understanding and adaptation
  • Ensuring environmentally sustainable economic opportunities and innovation

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Source Water Protection

Tools and Approaches for Source Water Protection in Canada Governance for Source Water Protection in Canada, Report No. 1

Simms, G., Lightman, D. and de Loë, R. | 2010

Source water protection (SWP) is a significant component of effective water management. Sources of drinking water, including lakes, rivers and aquifers, can be protected using a suite of management approaches designed to ensure acceptable water quality and quantity conditions for

a diverse range of uses.

Source water protection is most closely linked to drinking water safety. While this is appropriate, a broader perspective also exists. For example, agriculture requires water of a particular quality for purposes such as watering livestock and irrigating certain crops. Consistent quantities of water of a certain quality also are critical to many other industrial and commercial activities. At the same time, protection of sources of water for human uses can contribute to the maintenance of watershed conditions that support...

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Transboundary Water Management

Integrated water resources management in Central Asia: The challenges of managing large transboundary rivers

GWP | International | 2014

This paper focuses on IWRM experiences in Central Asia where the major rivers ? the Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers ? flow from the headwaters in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan to the downstream Fergana Valley in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and are a part of the Aral Sea Basin. Water demand is dominated by energy requirements and irrigation, which are central to economic life in the region. There is a long history of irrigation in the region, the influence of the Soviet Union, and some 15 years' post-independence experience of introducing

IWRM in the Fergana Valley. The paper describes building new infrastructure and, equally important, reforming institutional structures from the 'top-down' and from the 'bottom-up'. It also addresses the successes and the immense challenges still facing the region,...

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International Law - Facilitating Transboundary Water Cooperation

Patricia Wouters | 2013

The paper explores how international law facilitates transboundary cooperation in a manner that is accessible to the wider transboundary water community. It discusses the norms and principles contained in treaties and rules of customary law and examines how these work in selected case studies from across the GWP network. The study reveals how the rule of law, central to the law of nations, provides legal parameters and processes that govern the shared uses of transboundary water resources. There is a pervasive misperception that international law fails in its implementation of agreed international agreements and customary norms. But this paper provides evidence to the contrary - the rule of law is a critical foundation for facilitating effective transboundary water cooperation in a many ways. It provides the legal framework within...

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Urbanization and IWRM

Addressing Escalating Urban Water Demands

GWP | International | 2012

Growing competition, conflicts, shortages, waste and degradation of water resources make it imperative to rethink conventional concepts - to shift from an approach that attempts to manage different aspects of urban water cycle in isolation to an integrated approach supported by all stakeholders. This GWP Technical Committee Background paper (No. 16) discusses different aspects of the urban water cycle and demonstrates how an integrated approach can contribute to water security.

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Urban Water and Sanitation Services; An IWRM Approach

Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 2006

In this paper an attempt is made to consider IWRM approaches to urban water management in a broader way. While appropriate managment tools will be considered, attention is focussed on institutional design, decision-making scale, governance and the critical question of impledmentation practice.

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Wastewater

Managing the other side of the water cycle: Making wastewater an asset

Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 2009

This paper emphasizes that the provision of environmentally sound systems in an integrated way, taking into account the whole water cycle of water supply, wastewater, solid waste collection, treatment and reuse, is the best way forward to addressing this critical challenge.

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Water and Agriculture

Groundwater Governance and Irrigated Agriculture

GWP | 2014

This GWP Background Paper provides an excellent overview of the global groundwater economy and assesses the opportunities it offers for irrigated agriculture and also the risks it poses for depleting and degrading aquifer systems. It critically examines the various approaches that different countries have adopted for governing groundwater and assesses their wider applicability to global groundwater ?hotspots? where the need for promoting responsible groundwater use and management is urgent and critical for productivity, equity, and sustainability.

T

his review demonstrates that context is critical to finding solutions and each country will need to evolve an integrated groundwater governance regime appropriate to its own unique set of socio-ecological, economic, and political circumstances. It offers a three-stage...

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Water Quality and Agriculture: Meeting the Policy Challenge

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD Studies on Water) | 2012

Improving water quality is consistently ranked as a top environmental concern in OECD public opinion surveys. The key challenge for policy makers in addressing water quality issues in agriculture is to reduce water pollution while encouraging higher water quality for recreational and other uses.

This book examines linking policies, farm management and water quality. It looks at recent trends and prospects for water pollution from agriculture and the implications of climate change. It assesses the costs and benefits of agriculture's impact on water systems, and presents case studies of policy experiences from the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the Baltic region, France, the United Kingdom and the European Union in general.

Finally the report provides a set of recommendations for countries for meeting the challenge...

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Water And Climate Change

Paris Pact on water and adaptation to climate change in the basins of rivers, lakes and aquifers

International network of basin organizations | 2015

At the twenty-first Conference of the Parties to the United

Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21 /

CMP11) organized from 30 November to 11 December 2015

in Paris, We, representatives of governments, international

organizations, donors, national and transboundary basin

organizations of rivers, lakes or aquifers, local authorities, of

the civil society and companies, support the integration of

Water into the Climate change Action Agenda, especially for

initiating or strengthening necessary adaptation actions in the basins of rivers, lakes, aquifers, large wetlands as well as

coastal areas.

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Water Management, Water Security and Climate Change Adaptation: Early Impacts and Essential Responses

Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 2009

This paper argues that water resources management should be a focus for climate change adaptation and that IWRM is the most suitable approach to adaptive action. It outlines the likely social, economic and environmental impacts of climate change; the challenges climate change poses for water resources management; the actions needed to address those challenges - investments in infrastructure, institutions and information; and approaches to financing IWRM for adaptation.

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Water and cooperation

FREE FLOW REACHING WATER SECURITY THROUGH COOPERATION

UNESCO | 2013

Water Diplomacy

Transboundary Water Management

Legal Framework

Financing Cooperation etc.

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Water and Benefit Sharing in International River Basins

Markus Herrmann, Amaury Tilmant, Diane Arjoon | 2013

The current report will present a literature review on benefit sharing in transboundary natural resources, with an emphasis on water resources and transboundary rivers. After an overview of the problem, a general discussion on water allocation will be presented, followed by a review of water allocation in transboundary river basins.

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Water and Development

Poverty Reduction and IWRM

Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 2003

This paper focuses on the implications for poverty reduction of taking an IWRM approach. The paper argues that no strategy for poverty reduction can be effective unless water policies in all their dimensions are brought within it purview, and IWRM is adopted which allows competitions over access and uses to be fairly and transparently moderated. The paper is divided into two main parts. The first part puts forward a strong case for applying IWRM globally and defines the IWRM concept and process. The second part provides additional advice and guidance on how IWRM could be implemented in different conditions.

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Water and Drought

National Drought Management Policy Guidelines A Template for Action

Global Water Partnership | 2014

This publication is part of the Integrated Drought Management Tools and Guidelines Series, being compiled by the Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP). These National Drought Management Policy Guidelines are based on available literature, and draw findings from relevant works wherever possible. These guidelines address the needs of practitioners and policy makers. The publication is considered as a resource guide/material for practitioners and not an academic paper.

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Water and Economy

Canada as the Water Solutions Country: Defining the Opportunities

David Crane | 2013

This next paper is designed to help frame and meaningfully advance a national conversation around Canada's opportunities to become a global leader in water sustainability and innovation. This includes the development and application of water-related «resources» - knowledge, business skills and ingenuity - to implement a winning strategy with respect to best management and use of water.

This paper is divided into three sections:

  1. An overview of the global water context and some of the opportunities and drivers for water innovation.
  2. A snapshot of current water strengths, capabilities, assets, key players, and gaps that need to be filled to engender innovation, based on a realistic look at our «bench strength».
  3. Next steps and key questions that warrant further discussion...

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    Water as a Social and Economic Good: How to Put the Principle into Practice

    Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 1998

    The paper is divided into three sections. The first presents the general principles and methodologies for estimating costs and values in the water sector. The second section illustrates estimates of costs and values in urban, industrial, and agricultural sectors. Section three summarizes results and conclusions.

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Water and Ecosystems

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) | 2013

This TEEB for Water and Wetlands report underlines the fundamental importance of wetlands in the water cycle and in addressing water objectives reflected in the Rio+20 agreement, the Millennium Development Goals and forthcoming post 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. The report presents insights on both critical water-related ecosystem services and also on the wider ecosystem services from wetlands, in order to encourage additional policy momentum, business commitment, and investment in the conservation, restoration, and wise use of wetlands.

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Water Management and Ecosystems: Living with Change

Global Water Partnership (GWP) | 2003

The focus of this paper is to analyse the relations between human society, water resources and ecosystems, to clarify why and how vital ecosystems have to be protected and to indicate how this effort can be better incorporated in IWRM.

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Water and Energy

Energy and Water: Connection and Conflict

Natural Resources Committee | 2012

Energy and water are two fundamental building blocks of the U.S. economy. Power plants need water to operate. Electric water pumps move water around the country, especially in the West. Because energy and water are inextricably linked, they are in a constant interplay of supply and demand where a change in the availability one resource can impact the usage of the other and vice versa. Especially during droughts, water scarcity can cause conflict as drinking and agriculture needs increasingly compete against energy needs.

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Water Governance

Water Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean: a Multi-Level Approach

Akhmouch, A. (OECD) | 2012

The water debate in relation to poverty alleviation has one dimension that is often sidelined: its relationship with public governance. This report attempts to shed some light on the governance of water policy in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. It argues that public governance of water in most LAC countries is fragmented, as it is in the OECD area as well, and that greater efforts to co-ordinate water with other policy areas are crucial to maximise the impact on poverty reduction. It emphasises the need to design water policies in a more integrated manner and implement effective water governance tools and mechanisms that are context-specific, flexible and beneficial to the poor.

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Water Governance in OECD Countries: A Multi-level Approach

OECD | 2012

The multi-level approach used in the analysis aims to identify good practices for managing interdependencies between the many stakeholders involved in water management. It takes a close look at the processes through which public actors articulate their concerns, decisions are taken and policy makers are held accountable. Data were collected through an extensive survey on water governance in 2010 to which 17 OECD countries contributed.

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Water security

Water Security and the Global Water Agenda - A UN-Water Analytical Brief

UN Water | 2013

This Analytical Brief serves as a starting point for dialogue on water security in the United Nations system. This Brief offers a working definition of water security developed from contributions made by the broad range of organizations, agencies, programmes and institutions that form UN-Water. Through this Brief, UN-Water aims to capture the constantly evolving dimensions of water-related issues, offering a holistic outlook on challenges under the umbrella of water security. It highlights the main challenges to be addressed, the role water security plays in policy agendas, and possible options for addressing water security challenges.

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The Economic Value of Moving Toward a More Water Secure World

Global Water Partnership | 2013

This policy brief explains why it is important to understand the economic value of water security compared to other priorities. It also illustrates how the value of water is determined and describes the different perspectives of the states and the households.

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World Reports

The United Nations World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk

UNESCO, World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) | 2010

In the World Water Development Report (WWDR) series, the WWDR4 represents a milestone. While providing a comprehensive assessment of the world's water resources it also introduces a strong thematic element. Building on the WWDR3 in the recognition of the externalities, the WWDR4 elaborates on the interactions between water and the drivers of change. The WWDR4 describes the major changes, uncertainties, and risks taking place in the world and their links to water resources. It gives account of the status and the trends related to water supplies, uses, management, institutions and financing; highlights regional hotspots, and addresses issues such as gender equality, water-related disasters, health and the role of ecosystems.

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Other

Water Audit Manual. Volume 4, United Nations Human Settlements Programme.

UN-Habitat | 2013

This manual is part of a Utility Management Series for Small Towns. The Water Audit manual gives guidance on all aspects from when water gets to the distribution system to when water finally gets to the consumer. The scope of this water balance manual covers all aspects from the water supplied to the distribution system as well as water losses and/or used with the distribution system and what eventually reaches to the customer's premises and is billed/converted into revenue for the utility. The manual covers the procedures for determination of the various components of the water balance.

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Cooperation in action: approaches, tools and processes

UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC) | 2013

Proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 February 2011, the objective of the International Year is to raise awareness, both on the potential for increased cooperation, and on the challenges facing water management in light of increasing demand for water.

Competition among uses and users of water is increasing in almost all countries. This competition for water could increasingly become a source of tension and conflict between states, sectors and communities. Other po- tential sources of conflict include degrading water quality, inadequate water management and infrastructure development such as dams. While most acute conflicts occur locally, they can present challenges to the larger context of (inter)national peace and security. However, water has also proven to be a productive pathway for confidence building,...

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